Phosphorus in Soil
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, making it a crucial component of any gardening efforts.
It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, energy storage, and cell division.
Phosphorus deficiency can be detrimental to plants, leading to stunted growth, yellowing of leaves, and reduced yields.
It is, therefore, important to understand how to add phosphorus to soil effectively and identify phosphorus deficiency symptoms in plants.
This article will dive deeper into the sources of phosphorus for plants, how to add it to soil, and how to spot the signs of phosphorus deficiency and excess.
How to Add Phosphorus to Soil
Adding phosphorous to the soil can be achieved by using organic and natural products that provide a slow release of phosphorous over time. These products include compost, animal manure, bone meal, rock phosphate, or green manure.
Compost – Composting is an excellent way to add nutrients to soil, including phosphorous, nitrogen, and potassium. Compost can be made from kitchen scraps or purchased from stores that sell pre-made compost. Adding compost to the soil can be done by sprinkling 1 to 2 inches of compost over the bare soil and using a rake or shovel to mix it with the top 3 to 5 inches of soil.
Animal Manure – Animal manure is a great source of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous. It can be purchased in bags from stores that sell pre-made manure. Animal manure should be sprinkled 1 to 2 inches over the garden and mixed with the top 6 to 8 inches of soil for slow and steady release of nutrients.
Bone Meal – Bone meal is made from steamed animal bones and contains phosphorous and calcium. Bone meal can be added to soil by measuring out about 3 cups per 100 square feet of soil. Then sprinkle it over the dirt and mix it into the top 1 to 2 inches of soil.
Rock Phosphate – Rock phosphate is a sedimentary rock that contains high quantities of phosphate. It is ideal if the soil only needs phosphorus and not other nutrients like calcium, nitrogen, or potassium. This product can be added by sprinkling a 1 to 2 inches thick layer over the soil and then use a rake or shovel to mix it with the top layer of dirt.
Green Manure – Green manure involves planting nitrogen-rich crops, then plowing them back into the soil. This process adds phosphorus and other essential nutrients gradually to soil. Crops like oat, faba bean, clover, buckwheat, or mustard should be planted and harvested as usual. At the end of the season, till the plant matter back into the soil.
It’s important to note that it’s best to add these products to the soil 1 to 2 weeks before planting for optimal results. However, they can also be added during the growing season to give plants an extra boost.
Phosphorus Deficiency Symptoms in Plants
Plants with low levels of phosphorus grow slowly and poorly, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. Some of the typical symptoms of phosphorus deficiency include:
1. Stunted plant growth: Plants with phosphorus deficiency tend to grow slowly and remain smaller than they should.
2. Yellowing of leaves: The leaves of the plants often turn yellow and die earlier than usual when the plant lacks phosphorus.
3. Reduced yields: Plants low in phosphorus often produce reduced yields making them an unattractive choice in gardener’s eyes.
4. Purplish tinge: In some cases, plants may develop a purplish tinge on their leaves or stems, signaling a phosphorus deficiency.
High Phosphorus Symptoms in Plants
Due to the slow-release nature of organic phosphorous fertilizers, it often takes a while before excess phosphorus becomes a problem. High levels of phosphorus in soil can lead to toxicity which can cause damage to plants. Some of the common signs of phosphorus toxicity in plants include:
1. Reduced growth: High levels of phosphorus can stunt plant growth similar to what is observed in phosphorus-deficient plants.
2. Brown spots: Plants exposed to excess phosphorus can develop brown spots on their leaves, and this is because high levels of phosphorus can cause areas of necrosis or cell death on the leaf surface.
3. Root damage: High levels of phosphorus can cause root damage, leading to poor nutrient uptake by the plants.
When to Add Phosphorus to Soil
Adding phosphorus to the soil is essential 1 to 2 weeks before planting for best results. Phosphorus usually takes a few weeks to be absorbed by the soil. You can apply phosphate at any time in the season, but give the soil ample time to absorb it before you plant. You can also mix phosphorus into the soil during the growing season to give your plants an extra boost.
Sources of Phosphorus for Plants
1. Fertilizer – Fertilizers can provide plants with the phosphorus they require. The use of chemical fertilizers can have a damaging impact on the soil, so organic methods are recommended when adding phosphorus. One of the best organic fertilizers that add phosphorus to soil is bone meal.
2. Mulch – Mulching is one of the most effective ways to add organic matter to your garden while preserving moisture and keeping the soil temperature even. Mulch contains a wide range of nutrients, including phosphorus.
3. Compost – Composting is a simple way to add phosphorus to the soil. Kitchen scraps can be used to create compost, which can then be applied to the garden to give plants the required phosphorus.